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Y Wyddor Cymraeg - The Welsh Alphabet:

A a - sounds like HARD (long) or HAM (short).
B b - sounds like BOY.
C c - sounds like CAT.
Ch ch - an aspirated 'c' that does not occur in English. Sounds like LOCH, but more in the
throat like a cat coughing up a hair ball.
D d - sounds like DOG.
DD dd - sounds like THE.
E e - sounds like LANE (long) or THEN (short).
F f - sounds like OF.
FF ff - sounds like OFF.
G g - sounds like GARDEN.
Ng ng - sounds like LONG.
H h - sounds like HANG.
I i - sounds like TREE (long) or INK (short).
J j - sounds like JAM.
L l - sounds like LADDER.
Ll ll - an aspirated L which does not occur in English, produced by putting the tongue at the
roof of the mouth as if an L was to be pronounced & blowing instead.
M m - sounds like MAN.
N n - sounds like NAME.
O o - sounds like TOE (long) or GONE (short).
P p - sounds like PET.
Ph ph - an aspirated P sounds like OFF.
R r - sounds like RAT (rolled but not as pronounced as in Spanish).
Rh rh - an aspirated 'R' which does not occur in English, produced by pronouncing the 'h'
before the 'r'.
S s - sounds like SAILOR, except when followed by i when it is pronounced like SHOP.
T t - sounds like TOWN.
Th th - sounds like THINK.
U u - sounds like BEEN (long) or TIN (short).
W w - sounds like WIND or ZOO (long) or LOOK (short).
Y y - sounds like THE (uh) and sometimes like SEEN (long) or PIN (short).
In words like "y(r)", yn, "fy" sounds like The (uh).
In one syllable words, except for "y(r)", yn, "fy", like "dyn" - man (sounds like deen) or
"cyn" - before (sounds like cin) it may be pronounced long or short.
In words of more than one syllable the first "y" is like "y(r)", yn, "fy" in all syllables except
for the last syllable:
mynydd - mountian (sounds like muhneeth) - the first 'y' is pronounced like 'uh' & the
second 'y' in the last syllable is pronounced like 'ee'.
mynyddoedd - mountians (sounds like muhnuhthoith) - both 'y' are pronounce like 'uh'
since neither occurs in the last syllable.

Cyfuniadau Gydnaws - Consonant Combinations:

tsh - sounds like CHIPS.

Llafariaid - Vowels:
A a, E e, I i, O o, U u, W w, Y y

A a - sounds like HARD (long) or HAM (short).
E e - sounds like LANE (long) or THEN (short).
I i - sounds like TREE (long) or INK (short).
O o - sounds like TOE (long) or GONE (short).
U u - sounds like BEEN (long) or TIN (short).
W w - sounds like WIND or ZOO (long) or LOOK (short).
Y y - sounds like THE (uh) and sometimes like SEEN (long) or PIN (short).
In words like "y(r)", yn, "fy" sounds like The (uh).
In one syllable words, except for "y(r)", yn, "fy", like "dyn" - man (sounds like deen) or
"cyn" - before (sounds like cin) it may be pronounced long or short.
In words of more than one syllable the first "y" is like "y(r)", yn, "fy" in all syllables except
for the last syllable:
mynydd - mountian (sounds like muhneeth) - the first 'y' is pronounced like 'uh' & the
second 'y' in the last syllable is pronounced like 'ee'.
mynyddoedd - mountians (sounds like muhnuhthoith) - both 'y' are pronounce like 'uh'
since neither occurs in the last syllable.

Deuseiniaid - Diphthongs:

ai |
ae |-> All sound like "aye" except when in the last unaccented syllable when they sound like
au | 'e' or 'a' in some parts of North Wales.

aw - sounds like AWAY

eu |
ei | -> All sound like "eye"
ey |

ew - e+w

oe |
oi | -> All sound like BOY
ou |

ow - sounds like BLOW

iw |
yw | -> All sound like NEW
uw |

wy - sounds like WINDOW

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