Does Sweden do obituaries and if so how can I find them or how far back do they even go? Also how would I find out where someone was buried in Sweden?
I have seen published death notices in newspapers back to the mid-1900s. It seems that they would be of much less interest in publishing such notices in rural setting... few people would have access to a newspaper.
As for where people are buried, it would be right around the church. When you find the parish of the death record that is where they are buried. Granted there may be a few exceptions but logistics and cost would be factors. Now in major cities (Stockholm, Göteborg and Malmö) and in say the last 100 years, additional cemeteries may have come into being because of space limits.
To specifically answer your second question, to find -where-, find the death record.
Modern times and urban place would be exceptions.